Skin Concerns

18 Best Eye Serums of 2022 | Top Eye Serums for Puffiness & Dark Circles

Read on to learn how to pick the right eye cream for your needs. Take a quick look at the best eye creams for dark circles.
By Dermspotlight Staff,
Updated Aug 12, 2022
Advertising Disclosure: Our editors independently research, test, and recommend the best products; we may receive commissions on purchases made from our chosen links. You can learn more about our review process here.

Overview

Have you looked in the mirror after a good night’s sleep and noticed you still look tired? If so, this is often due to dark circles and puffiness around your eyes.

The good news is that there are products you can use to help with this issue, and they’re called “eye serums.” So now you’re probably wondering what eye serums are. Well, basically, they are used to reduce the appearance of wrinkles, fine lines, and crow’s feet. They are also used to treat dark circles and puffiness around the eyes. They use ingredients such as retinol, hyaluronic acid, peptides, and antioxidants to improve the texture and firmness of the skin around the eyes.

If you’ve ever gone shopping and looked for eye serums, you know there are rows and rows of them to choose from. Each promises to make you look years younger, but what do you really need?

In order to answer this question, it’s important to understand how your skin ages in the first place.

Our skin is made up of three layers: the epidermis (the outermost layer), dermis (the middle layer), and hypodermis (the deepest layer). The epidermis contains melanin, which gives our skin its color.

As we age, the amount of melanin in our skin decreases, causing it to become thinner and more transparent. This process is called photoaging or photo-damaging.

best eye serums
Eye serums for dark circles and puffiness. Image/Dermspotlight
The dermis contains collagen and elastin fibers that give structure and strength to our skin. They also give our faces firmness and shape, so when they break down with age, we get wrinkles around the eyes, mouth, and forehead areas. These wrinkles are called dynamic wrinkles because they change position based on facial expressions, such as smiling or frowning, while static wrinkles remain fixed regardless of facial expression changes (such as crow’s feet around eyes or vertical lip lines).

There are lots of different things that can cause wrinkles and dark circles around your eyes. If you have very dry skin, it might be because of dehydration. If you have oily skin, it might be because of too much sebum production. And if you have sensitive skin, it might be because of an allergic reaction to something in your diet or skincare routine.

This doesn’t even include lifestyle factors like sleep deprivation or stress—both serious contributors to the aging process!

So how do we fix all this? With the right eye serum! Eye serums are specially formulated to address specific issues related to eye health (like dehydration) or skin care (like irritation). They’re usually made with a combination of ingredients that work together synergistically to give results quickly and effectively—and without any side effects!

What’s The Difference Between Eye Creams and Eye Serums?

Eye serums and eye creams are both a type of skin care product that is used to help reduce the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and dark circles under the eyes. However, there are some differences between the two types of products.

Eye serums are typically oil-based and have a lighter consistency than eye creams. They are usually applied after cleansing but before moisturizing. Eye serums can be used by people who have dry skin or sensitive skin around the eye area because they won’t clog pores or cause irritation like some other types of skincare products can do.

Eye creams are thicker than eye serums and can be used as an alternative to moisturizer if you want something more concentrated for your under-eye area specifically. Some eye creams contain ingredients like retinol or peptides that help boost collagen production, which can improve elasticity in that area and help reduce fine lines and wrinkles over time as well as dark circles beneath your eyes due to under-eye puffiness caused by fluid buildup around the orbital bone (the rim around your eyeball).

Benefits of Using Eye Serums

It’s important to use an eye serum every day. Why? Because it will help you achieve the look you’re going for!

An eye serum is a lotion or liquid that you apply to the skin around your eyes. It can be used to hydrate and protect the skin there, as well as to help diminish signs of aging like wrinkles and dark circles.

Eye serums are usually applied after toning and before moisturizing–and for best results, they should be applied in upward strokes from the outer corner of your eye toward your eyebrow.

No matter your age or skin type, eye serums can help you get the results you want. Eye serums are designed to work with the needs of your specific skin type and help reduce the signs of aging and other skin issues that can occur around your eyes.

If you want to reduce wrinkles and fine lines around your eyes, then an eye serum is a must-have item in your beauty routine. Eye serums contain ingredients like peptides, retinol, hyaluronic acid, antioxidants, [1] and more that will help firm up loose skin around the eye area and reduce wrinkles. These ingredients also have anti-aging properties that make them great for preventing new wrinkles from forming as well as reducing existing ones.

If you’re looking for something to help with dark circles under your eyes or puffiness around them, then an eye serum is also perfect for you! This area tends to be sensitive when it comes to skincare, so finding products that won’t irritate this delicate skin is key here! Eyelid creams are made specifically for this area so they won’t irritate it.

The skin around our eyes is different than the rest of our faces. It’s thinner, more fragile, and more easily damaged by sun exposure. That’s why it’s so important to use an eye serum.

Eye serums contain ingredients that are specifically designed to treat the delicate skin around your eyes. They can help prevent signs of aging (wrinkles, dark circles), moisturize dry skin, and even help with puffiness around the eyes.

The best eye serums contain potent antioxidants like vitamin C and ferulic acid that fight free radicals in order to help prevent premature aging of your skin.

If you want to preserve the youthful appearance of your eyes, then an eye serum is a great way to do it!

Our Top Eye Serums

DRMTLGY Needle-Less Serum

DRMTLGY Needle-Less Serum

Drmtlgy is a skincare brand that’s well known for its high-quality skincare lines. Their newest needle-less serum targets fine lines and hydrates skin. The ingredients in it can help shrink pores, hydrate skin, even out skin tone, and reduce eye puffiness. It has high-quality ingredients such as tri-peptide 7, caffeine, niacinamide, and Glucosamine HCI.

DRMTLGY Needle-Less Serum is the first of its kind. It’s a serum that uses a painless needle-free delivery system to deliver vitamins and nutrients deep into your skin. With DRMTLGY Needle-Less Serum, you can get exactly what your skin needs without any of discomfort associated with traditional needle-based products.

In fact, the entire process takes minutes and delivers results that are unparalleled in terms of effectiveness and smoothness.

The serum itself is made from ingredients that have been proven effective at healing and repairing damaged skin, including hyaluronic acid and Vitamin C. It’s super simple to use: Just apply to your face daily after cleansing (but before moisturizing), then wait for results!

The key advantage of this eye serum is that it does what it says. It makes the skin around your eyes appear tighter and diminishes the look of wrinkles.

  • Price: $69

Container Type: Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 1 fl oz (30 ml) | Form: Serum | Brand: DRMTLGY


SkinCeuticals AOX+ Eye Gel

SkinCeuticals AOX+ Eye Gel

SkinCeuticals AOX+ Eye Gel is a skincare product that helps to reduce the appearance of wrinkles, dark circles, and puffiness around the eyes. This gel also helps to firm and smooth the skin around your eyes, so it looks younger and more vibrant.

SkinCeuticals AOX+ Eye Gel is a powerful antioxidant-based gel that helps to prevent and repair the signs of aging.

SkinCeuticals AOX+ Eye Gel contains a proprietary blend of antioxidants, peptides, and hyaluronic acid, which work together to reverse the effects of free radicals on the skin and protect it from damage.

The formula also contains hyaluronic acid, which helps to hydrate the skin and improve elasticity by binding moisture to the upper layers of the skin. This helps keep wrinkles at bay while smoothing out fine lines and crow’s feet.

By using SkinCeuticals AOX+ Eye Gel daily, you can help prevent further damage to the skin around your eyes while helping to improve the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

  • Price: $91.18

Container Type: Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Gel | Brand: SkinCeuticals


STRIVECTIN Super-C Dark Circle Brightening Eye Serum

STRIVECTIN Super-C Dark Circle Brightening Eye Serum

The key ingredient in this serum is vitamin C, which is well-known for its ability to brighten skin tone and even out skin texture. It also contains peptides, which help to increase collagen production, resulting in firmer skin and less puffiness around your eyes.

  • Price: $65.00

Container Type: Pump Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Serum | Brand: STRIVECTIN


Revision Skincare D.E.J Eye Cream

Revision Skincare D.E.J Eye Cream

The Revision Skincare D.E.J Eye Cream is a skin care product designed to reduce the appearance of dark circles and puffiness around your eyes. This product is made with natural ingredients, including vitamin C and E, which are known for their antioxidant properties.

  • Price: $109.00

Container Type: Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Cream | Brand: Revision


StBotanica Vitamin C 10% Brightening Under Eye Serum

StBotanica Vitamin C 10% Brightening Under Eye Serum

StBotanica Vitamin C 10% Brightening Under Eye Serum is a serum that helps you get rid of dark circles, fine lines and wrinkles, age spots, and other signs of aging under the eyes. It contains vitamin C which is one of the most effective natural brightening agents. The vitamin C in this serum helps lighten dark spots, eliminate fine lines and wrinkles, and restore elasticity of the skin.

  • Price: $24.97

Container Type: Pump Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Cream | Brand: StBotanica


Murad Youth Retinol Eye Serum

Murad Youth Retinol Eye Serum

Murad Youth Retinol Eye Serum is a highly-effective, anti-aging eye serum that helps to reduce the appearance of wrinkles, fine lines, and puffiness. This lightweight formula contains retinol and antioxidants like Vitamin C and E to help fight free radical damage and promote cell renewal. It’s gentle enough for daily use, so you can get the most out of your skin care routine.

  • The Reviewers Say: Most of the reviewers loved this eye cream and said it was a powerful wrinkle remover.
  • Price: $89.00

Container Type: Pump Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Gel | Brand: Murad


La Mer The Lifting Eye Serum

La Mer The Lifting Eye Serum

La Mer The Lifting Eye Serum is a serum that can be used to help you look younger and more radiant. The serum works by improving the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and dark circles. It also helps to firm and lift your skin as well as brighten your complexion.

  • Price: $81.99

Container Type: Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Serum | Brand: La Mer


Lancôme Absolue Revitalizing Eye Serum

Lancôme Absolue Revitalizing Eye Serum

​​Lancôme Absolue Revitalizing Eye Serum is the perfect product for those who want to look younger and feel healthier. This serum smooths away fine lines and wrinkles, while also providing hydration and nourishment to your skin.

  • Price: $129.96

Container Type: Bottle | Skin Type: Sensitive | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Cream | Brand: Lancôme


Drunk Elephant Shaba Complex Firming Eye Serum

Drunk Elephant Shaba Complex Firming Eye Serum

Drunk Elephant Shaba Complex Firming Eye Serum is a product that helps reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles around the eyes. The serum can also help to improve the skin’s firmness, elasticity, and texture.

  • Price: $69.00

Container Type: Tube | Skin Type: Sensitive | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Serum | Brand: Drunk Elephant


Dr. Dennis Gross Advanced Retinol + Ferulic Triple Correction Eye Serum

Dr. Dennis Gross Advanced Retinol + Ferulic Triple Correction Eye Serum

Dr. Dennis Gross Advanced Retinol + Ferulic Triple Correction Eye Serum is an eye serum that helps to reduce the appearance of wrinkles and dark circles while also brightening and hydrating the skin under your eyes. It contains a retinol complex, which helps to boost collagen production and improve elasticity, as well as ferulic acid, which inhibits melanin production and helps to prevent damage from UV rays.

  • Price: $68.99

Container Type: Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Serum | Brand: Dennis Gross


SkinMedica TNS Eye Repair

SkinMedica TNS Eye Repair

SkinMedica TNS Eye Repair is a topical treatment for the reduction of under-eye bags. The product is designed to reduce the appearance of dark circles, puffiness, and wrinkles around the eyes.

  • Price: $95.40

Container Type: Jar | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Cream | Brand: SkinMedica


iS CLINICAL Pro-Heal Serum Advance

iS CLINICAL Pro-Heal Serum Advance

The product has been formulated to stimulate collagen and elastin production, as well as reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. It also contains peptides to stimulate cell renewal and reduce dark spots, hyperpigmentation, and age spots.

  • Price: $158.00

Container Type: Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 1 fl oz | Form: Serum | Brand: iS CLINICAL


La Prairie Skin Caviar Eye Lift Serum

La Prairie Skin Caviar Eye Lift Serum

La Prairie Skin Caviar Eye Lift Serum is a revolutionary anti-aging product that helps reduce the appearance of under-eye bags and fine lines. When used as directed, La Prairie Skin Caviar Eye Lift Serum can help reduce the appearance of saggy skin and dark circles.

  • Price: $268.99

Container Type: Pump Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.68 fl oz | Form: Serum | Brand: La Prairie


QMS Medicosmetics Epigen Depuff Pollution Shield Eye Serum

QMS Medicosmetics Epigen Depuff Pollution Shield Eye Serum

QMS Medicosmetics Epigen Depuff Pollution Shield Eye Serum is a revolutionary product that helps you protect your skin from pollution and other environmental contaminants. It also reduces puffiness and dark circles, which can be caused by stress and fatigue. This serum contains a proprietary blend of ingredients that have been clinically proven to reduce puffiness in 7 days. The formula also includes peptides and antioxidants that help to strengthen the skin around the eye area, which can make it more resistant to damage from UV rays, pollution, and other environmental factors.

  • Price: $40.00

Container Type: Tube | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Cream | Brand: QMS Medicosmetics


Orvos Satin Eye Gel Cream

Orvos Satin Eye Gel Cream

Orvos Satin Eye Gel Cream is a moisturizing and anti-aging eye gel-cream that helps prevent wrinkles, dark circles, dryness, and puffiness. The formula is rich in botanical extracts, peptides, and plant oils that nourish the skin and make it look younger. It also contains caffeine which helps to tighten the skin around your eyes while reducing puffiness.

  • Price: $110.00

Container Type: Tube | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Gel | Brand: Orvos


NeoStrata Repair Intensive Eye Therapy

NeoStrata Repair Intensive Eye Therapy

NeoStrata Repair Intensive Eye Therapy is a non-greasy, fast-absorbing eye cream that’s designed to help reduce the appearance of dark circles and fine lines around your eyes. It also helps to restore moisture and improve elasticity. The formula is made with ingredients like caffeine and chamomile that help to stimulate circulation, while hyaluronic acid and shea butter provide intense hydration.

  • Price: $84.00

Container Type: Tube | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz | Form: Cream | Brand: NeoStrata


PERRICONE MD Essential Fx Acyl-Glutathione Deep Crease Serum

PERRICONE MD Essential Fx Acyl-Glutathione Deep Crease Serum

This serum will help you to achieve a more youthful appearance. It is made with a combination of peptides, and vitamins E and C, which have been proven to help reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. The product also contains acyl-glutathione, which helps to promote collagen production in your skin. This product can be used on all skin types, but it is especially recommended for those who have dry or mature skin.

  • Price: $85.99

Container Type: Bottle | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 1 fl oz | Form: Serum | Brand: PERRICONE MD


DermaSet 3D Rollerball Eye Serum

DermaSet 3D Rollerball Eye Serum

DermaSet 3D Rollerball Eye Serum is manufactured by Dermaset Inc who is a US-based manufacturer of skincare products. The manufacturer states that the rollerball eye serum works by boosting skin moisture, therefore, smoothing fine lines and wrinkles.

DermaSet 3D Rollerball Eye Serum consists of high-quality ingredients, including Tri-Peptide Complex, caffeine, hyaluronic acid, and kinetin.

The key advantage of this eye serum is it makes your eyes look brighter and gets rid of the most visible signs of aging. It helps restore skin moisture and elasticity. It helps to even out skin tone and reduces puffiness.

  • Price: $42.99

Container Type: Tube | Skin Type: For All Skin Types | Size: 0.5 fl oz (15 ml) | Form: Serum | Brand: Gle


What To Look For In Eye Serums

Eye serums are a fantastic way to treat the delicate skin around your eyes. While they can be used on all types of skin, they’re especially helpful for those with sensitive skin or signs of aging.

One of the most important things to look for in an eye serum is whether it contains natural ingredients. Natural ingredients are better for your skin because they don’t contain synthetic chemicals that can irritate or damage the skin.

Eye serums that contain natural ingredients are also more likely to have greater anti-aging benefits than those containing synthetic chemicals.

The best eye serums contain a number of ingredients that help the skin around your eyes stay firm, smooth, and hydrated. Some of these compounds include:

Vitamin C

This antioxidant is great for healing wounds and preventing premature signs of aging in the skin. It also prevents water loss from the skin by reducing inflammation.[2]

Hyaluronic Acid

This ingredient helps to keep moisture in the skin for longer periods of time. It acts as a barrier against environmental factors such as sunlight and pollution that cause damage over time to the outer layer of your skin (epidermis).[3]

Retinol

Retinol is a form of vitamin A that stimulates collagen production and helps to reduce fine lines around the eyes caused by sun exposure over time (photoaging).[4]

You also want to make sure that the company selling their product has been around for at least five years or more (and preferably longer), because this shows that they’ve been able to survive long enough in order.

Another thing you should consider when choosing an eye serum is what type of formula it uses: gel, lotion, or cream?

Eye serums come in all three forms, and each has its own unique benefits that make it better suited for different skin types and needs.

For example, if you have oily skin, then you may want to choose a gel formula because it won’t clog pores like some other formulas might do; however, if you have dry skin, then lotion formulas might be better suited because they’ll provide more hydration than gels will while still being light enough not to clog pores like creams might do (especially if they’re too heavy).

Ingredients You Need To Look For When Buying Eye Serums

If you’re looking for an eye serum to help with wrinkles, dark circles, and sagging skin, it’s important to know which ingredients are going to give you the best results.

Here are some of the top ingredients to look for:

Vitamin C

A powerful antioxidant that helps reduce inflammation and discoloration caused by sun damage. It also increases collagen production, which helps reduce wrinkles.

Retinol

This vitamin A derivative works wonders on fine lines and deep wrinkles. It also helps fade dark spots from sun exposure and improves skin elasticity, so your skin looks younger and more vibrant.

Hyaluronic Acid

A humectant that helps your skin retain moisture so it doesn’t dry out or wrinkle prematurely. It plumps up skin cells so they look smoother and more supple overall!

Peptides

Peptides, are chains of amino acids that have been proven to repair skin damage. They also stimulate collagen production so they can help improve the elasticity of your skin as well as reduce signs of aging like fine lines and wrinkles.

Antioxidants

Antioxidants, which help protect against free radicals, which can cause premature aging. Retinol is one of the most popular antioxidants used in eye creams and serums because it also has anti-inflammatory properties that help reduce puffiness and dark circles under your eyes. Some eye serums also contain peptides, which can help reduce wrinkles by stimulating collagen production in the skin.

Niacinamide

This powerful antioxidant can help reduce fine lines and wrinkles around your eyes. It’s also great at protecting against sun damage and preventing dark circles under your eyes.[5]

Caffeine

Caffeine is a natural ingredient that has been used as an anti-aging agent since ancient times. It stimulates collagen production and helps your skin repair itself after damage from sun exposure or other environmental factors like pollution or smoke inhalation (which can cause dark circles).[6]

Squalane Oil

It is derived from olives and helps moisturize your skin while also providing antioxidants that protect against free radicals and environmental damage.[7]

Ingredients To Avoid When Looking For Eye Serums

When it comes to eye serums, there are some things you should definitely avoid.

Sulfates

These are commonly found in cleansers, shampoos, and other products. They can cause skin irritation and dryness.

Parabens

These are preservatives that are used in cosmetics and personal care products to increase the shelf life of a product. They can have negative effects on your body, such as hormone disruption and allergic reactions.

Silicones

Silicones are used in many products to make them smooth and silky feeling. They can also clog pores and cause inflammation of the skin around them.

Mineral Oils

Mineral oils are derived from petroleum byproducts and can also clog pores and cause irritation for those with sensitive skin.

What Eye Serums Can and Can’t Do

Eye serums are a popular solution to a range of common eye issues. But what exactly can they do?

First, it’s important to know that eye serums are not meant to treat the entire eye area. They’re designed to be used in conjunction with other treatments, like face serums and creams. Their purpose is to address specific concerns as they relate specifically to the eyes—not the entire face.

That said, there are a few ways that eye serums can help you achieve your skin goals:

Eye Serums Can Help With Wrinkles.

If you have fine lines or wrinkles around your eyes, an eye serum can help reduce their appearance. It does this by increasing collagen production and improving skin elasticity, which helps fill in lines and wrinkles and make them less noticeable.

Eye Serums Can Help With Puffiness Around The Eyes.

When you’re tired or dehydrated, fluid builds up in your eyelids and causes puffiness around the eyes—this is also called “eye bags.” An eye serum containing peptides will help reduce water retention in this area so that puffiness is reduced or eliminated altogether!

Eye Serums Can Help With Dark Circles Under Your Eyes.

While eye serums can help improve the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles around your eyes, they won’t completely erase them—and they won’t prevent new ones from forming, either! If you want to prevent future damage to your skin, you should look into using an SPF daily or weekly sunscreen on this area of your face (or wear protective eyewear). You should also avoid smoking or spending long periods in the sun without adequate protection.

FAQs

Q: Will an eye serum reduce wrinkles?

A: Eye serum can reduce wrinkles, but it is not a cure-all.

Eye serum will not completely eliminate wrinkles. It can, however, help to reduce their appearance and make them less noticeable when applying the product regularly. Eye serum works by strengthening the skin around your eyes and helping to repair any damage that has been done due to aging or other factors.

Because of this, eye serum is best used in conjunction with other treatments for reducing the appearance of wrinkles. It should also be used as part of an overall anti-aging skin care regimen that includes moisturizing and cleansing products as well as makeup designed for covering up problem areas like dark circles or under-eye bags.

Q: How do I apply eye serum?

A: The application of eye serum is very simple. First, you should wash your hands well to remove any oils or dirt. Then, you can use a cotton swab to apply the serum to the skin around your eyes. Use gentle strokes to apply the product evenly and avoid tugging on the delicate skin around your eyes.

Q: When should I start using eye serums?

A: You should start using eye serums while in your 20s.

Q: Can I use eye serums daily?

A: Yes, you can use eye serums daily.

The Bottom Line

Eye serums can be used to treat several conditions affecting the skin around the eyes, including dark circles and wrinkles. Eye serums are typically applied directly to the skin around the eyelids, but some brands offer a more convenient way to apply eye serums with an applicator that resembles a pen.

Eye serums are often used in conjunction with other skincare products for maximum results. For example, you might use an eye serum before applying makeup or at night to reduce puffiness and dark circles under your eyes.

You can also combine an eye serum with a moisturizer or sunscreen during the day if you want to keep your skin healthy while fighting off signs of aging.

Dr. Mary Beth Parisi, MD

By Dr. Mary Beth Parisi, MD

Dr. MaryBeth Parisi is a board-certified Harvard trained Dermatologist. She has over 18 years of experience in the field of skin care.

7 sources

[1] Jeong S, Yoon S, Kim S, Jung J, Kor M, Shin K, Lim C, Han HS, Lee H, Park KY, Kim J, Chung HJ, Kim HJ. Anti-Wrinkle Benefits of Peptides Complex Stimulating Skin Basement Membrane Proteins Expression. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Dec 20;21(1):73. doi: 10.3390/ijms21010073. PMID: 31861912; PMCID: PMC6981886. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981886/
[2] Al-Niaimi F, Chiang NYZ. Topical Vitamin C and the Skin: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017 Jul;10(7):14-17. Epub 2017 Jul 1. PMID: 29104718; PMCID: PMC5605218. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5605218/
[3] National Library of Medicine Dermato Endocrinology Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging published July 1, 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583886/
[4] Harvard Health Publishing Harvard Medical School Published March 3, 2022 https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/do-retinoids-really-reduce-wrinkles
[5] Optometry Australia Vitamin B3 may help improve visual function in glaucoma patients, study finds by Helen Carter published March 7 2020 https://www.optometry.org.au/research_surveys/vitamin-b3-may-help-improve-visual-function-in-glaucoma-patients-study-finds/#:~:text=A%20world%2Dfirst%20clinical%20trial,leads%20to%20blindness%20in%20glaucoma.
[6] National Library of Medicine Evaluation of the clinical efficacy and safety of an eye counter pad containing caffeine and vitamin K in emulsified Emu oil base Published January 6, 2015.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4300604/
[7] National Library of Medicine Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Squalene and Related Compounds: Potential Uses in Cosmetic Dermatology Published January 23, 2009https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6253993/